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By F. J. Belinfante
A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part booklet at the hidden-variable theories, referred during this publication as ""theories of the 1st kind"". half I reports the causes in constructing types of hidden-variables theories. the search for determinism ended in theories of the 1st style; the search for theories that seem like causal theories while utilized to spatially separated platforms that interacted long ago ended in theories of the second one type. components II and III additional describe the theories of the 1st type and moment style, respectively.
This publication is written to make the literature on hidden variables understandable to people who are pressured by way of the unique papers with their controversies, and to common reader of physics papers.
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Since ( — Jn)2 = J2, points on the sphere that are each other's antipodes will have the same color. Any point P and its antipode are the poles of a great circle C representing all directions perpendicular to n. According to (60c) this circle C for any red point P must be a completely blue circle. Since, thus, each red point introduces many more blue points, we find that it is impossible to get enough red color onto the sphere so as to make one-third of the sphere red, as condition (60b) suggests we would need.
The eigenstates of this perturbation are the same as mentioned above, and the perturbation energy is (b+c)h2 or (c+a)ft2 or (a+b)h2 depending on which of the three J2 operators has the value zero. So by measuring the energy of the atom we can determine, for the three orthogonal coordinate axes determined by the rhombic electric field, along which of these three axes is J2 = 0, and then J2 = h2 along the other two axes. ) More specifically, suppose we excite an orthohelium atom to its 23P0 state, from where, in absence of a rhombic field, it could drop down to any 23Si state under emission of a photon.
Talking in terms of longitudes and latitudes as on the earth, this would be the region between 0° and 90° east on the northern hemisphere. We would also color the adjacent meridians red, including the north pole where they intersect, but then we must color the equator blue, including the part where it borders the red region. Then, also red will be the antipode octant, between 180° and 90° west on the southern hemisphere, with adjacent meridians and south pole. Drawing blue great circles C for all points P colored red so far, we find that they cover up all the remainder of the sphere ; so we cannot add more red.
A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories by F. J. Belinfante