Download PDF by W. B. Crow (Auth.): A Synopsis of Biology

By W. B. Crow (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 1483168263

ISBN-13: 9781483168265

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Three stages shown in transverse and longitudinal views. FORM AND STRUCTURE 22 Cell-wall, continued. Protoplast = Cytoplasm + nucleus, in typical vegetable cells is expanded by such pressure to fit cell-wall closely. —As thickenings across spindle elements along equator. Vacuoles if present are first pushed out of the way by the protoplasm. May form simultaneously, or as ingrowing diaphragm as in most algae. Sometimes the new cell-wall instead of being Cytoplasm Fig. —Typical vegetable cell from inner epidermis of onion scale.

Where gaseous or liquid they form vacuoles. In adult plant cells there is often a single large central vacuole ± traversed by strands of protoplasm in which the nucleus may be suspended, or it may be lodged in protoplasm a t one side of the cell. The c e l l - s a p in such vacuoles although watery is not pure water, but has both colloidal and crystalloidal substances in it. Salts and soluble carbohydrates are included, especially sugar. Inulin which takes the place of starch in composite plants also occurs dissolved in the sap, although it is thrown out of solution in alcoholpreserved material in the form of globular crystalline masses.

Megasporangia bearing m e g a s p o r e s which germinate to form the female sexual plant. Owing to this differentiation it is general to ascribe sex to the parts of and, if the two kinds are borne on different plants, to the whole of the plant of the asexual generation. The spores have envelopes and the reduced chromosome number, reduction having taken place during their formation. They germinate to produce the sexual generation, which is, in the seed plants, greatly reduced, as will be seen later.

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A Synopsis of Biology by W. B. Crow (Auth.)

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